The four MahaVakyas of the Upanishads

The Mahavakyas are Pragnanam Brhm, Aham Brhmasmi,Tat-tvam-asi, Ayamatma Brhm

The MahaVakya from Upanishad
The MahaVakya from Upanishad

The four Upanishadic MahaVakya

Pragnanam Brhm
Aham Brhmasmi
Tat-tvam-asi
Ayamatma Brhm

[dropcap color=”#008040″ boxed=”yes” boxed_radius=”8px” class=”” id=””]T[/dropcap]hese are the four MahaVakya (Great Sentences) that reveal the nature of Atma and Brhm. They approach Brhm from a different perspective, focusing on the non-differentiation of Atma and Brhm. These special Sentences in ‘Upanishads’ reveal the nature of Atman (Self) and Brhm (the Divine) and those are called ‘MahaVakya’ or ‘Great Sentences’. Each approach Brhm from a different perspective while addressing the non-differentiation of Atma and Brhm.


The first Maha Vakya, Pragnanam Brahma (Consciousness is the Brhm) is the Lakshana Vakya (Defining Sentence). This Maha Vakya is from an Upanishad related to Rig Veda.

The second Maha Vakya, Aham Brhm Asmi (Self is Brhm) is the Anubhava Vakya (Experience’s Sentence). This Maha Vakya is from an Upanishad related to Yajur Veda.

The third Maha Vakya, Tat-tvam-asi (the entire substratum of the universe is Brhm) is the Upadesha Vakya (Sentence taught by the GURU to the desciple). This Maha Vakya is from the Chandogya Upanishad related to Sama Veda.

[dropcap color=”#008040″ boxed=”yes” boxed_radius=”8px” class=”” id=””]T[/dropcap]he fourth Maha Vakya, Ayamatma Brhm (the Atma is Brhm), is the Anusandhana Vakya (the Sentence that keeps us connected to the larger reality). It reveals the nonduality between Atma and Brhm. This Maha Vakya is from the Munduka Upanishad related to Atharva Veda.



Written by Rashmi Pandey © July, 2012

Article published here after due permission from the Author.

Ravinder Kaushik is an Advocate, enrolled at Bar Council of Punjab & Haryana. His Social Media links are:

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6 COMMENTS

  1. 1.Rigveda- Prajnanam Brahma – consciousnesses is Brahman-Aitreya Upanishad
    2.Yajurveda- Aham Brahmasmi- Iam Brahman-Brihadaranyaka upanishad
    3.Samaveda-Tat Tvam Asi – Thou art that-You are Brahman-Chandogya upanishad
    4. Atharva Veda-Ayam aatma Brahma – this atman is Brahman- Mandukya upanishad.

  2. The 4 Mahavakyas are described nicely. Last 2 Mahavakyas are clearly stated from which Upanishads and from which Vedas they are derived.
    But for the first 2 Vakyas , the source of upanishads are mentioned

  3. The 4 Mahavakyas are described nicely. Last 2 Mahavakyas are clearly stated from which Upanishads and from which Vedas they are derived.
    But for the first 2 Vakyas , the source of Upanishads are not mentioned though the source of Vedas are mentioned
    I think some corrections are to be done here otherwise readers may not appreciate 100 percent of the explanation

  4. May every society and country have a great man like Dr.Subramaniam Swamy!! God knows where he gets his energy from! Kodi namasakaramgal!

  5. Aham Brhm Asmi (( Self is Brhm ))
    Among these four mahavakyas, even this single one forms the foundation of entire existence and the core of Universe. Concept of Moksh lies within this Mahavakya that Self is Brhm.
    God bless you, Rashmi. May every mother has a daughter like you

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